Roughly half of the world's population lives in urban areas. Cities consume a great majority 60-
80% of energy production and account equivalent share of global CO2 emissions. And cities
are more vulnerable to climate change because of its exposure and sensitivity. The growth in
population, urban and industrial area, economic activities and changing climate in cities are
bound with urban climate challenges. Therefore the research includes climate change analysis, urban system
analysis and vulnerability assessment in the developing urban areas like metropolitan cities.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30 years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations as is evident from cases reported across the world. The WHO claims that 30 new diseases have emerged in the past 20 years. In addition there has been a resurgence and redistribution of old diseases on a global scale.
In this situation of changing climatic conditions, there is an emergent need to address the issue of the impact of climate change on human health at a regional level. A holistic database that showcases the vulnerability of the city in terms of climate change is also a dire necessity so as to alert the masses through suitable forecast models. The objective of research therefore to identify the prevalent diseases affected by climate change in Chennai city and to correlate their occurrence with climate change and highlight the vulnerability of the city to predicted problems. The detailed documentation of diseases affected by climate change will be a strong database for advancing the knowledge assimilation on health sector and a great service in order to assist policy makers in planning for sustainable development to the state's human welfare.
The Research aims to answer the following questions:
1.How is human health affected by changing climatic conditions?
2.What are the local linkages of climate change and human diseases?
3.To what extent will Chennai city be vulnerable to climate change in future?
Biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and other nutrients are
key factors governing the productivity of forest ecosystems and their response to climate change
and disturbance. Forests of the Eastern Ghats in India are among the most productive and
carbon rich in the world and soil microbial communities play an important role in sustaining that
productivity. Soil microbial communities are critically important for recycling nutrients by the
decomposition of soil organic matter, and supply the bulk of these essential nutrients that plants
need for growth and carbon uptake.
My work examines to enhance the carbon sequestration in degraded forest using
microbial rhizosphere engineering technology. Understanding the functional response of soil
microbial communities to myriad environmental factors (e.g., climate, geology, natural and
human disturbances, tree species, soil development) is important for predicting the response and
recovery of forest ecosystems to local, regional, and global events such as wildfire, and climate
Enhancing carbon reserves in wetlands in the context of climate change is consistent with
reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands and restoring their carbon reserves. Degradation of
wetlands and disturbance of its anaerobic environment leads to a higher rate of decomposition of the large
amount of carbon stored in it and thus augments greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Therefore,
protecting the wetlands is a practical way of retaining the existing carbon reserves and thus avoiding
emission of CO2 and greenhouse gases. With the ever-increasing population pressure and elevated food
demand, the wetlands are under significant threats. Due to the changes in land use, over exploitation,
drainage and several anthropogenic activities and natural processes the wetlands' physico-chemical as
well as biological conditions are often disturbed, and these disturbances lead to rapid loss of carbon from
organic soils. If wetlands are not preserved or maintained properly, these ecosystem could switch from
being net sinks of carbon to becoming sources of greenhouse gases that accelerate climate change.
My research aim is to protect wetland in a sustainable manner in the emerging scenario of climate
Short-lived climate forcers and their Impact on Air Quality and Climate
Climate trends and extreme events reveal that the Climate is changing now. Even in the near term, has the potential to trigger abrupt transitions such as loss of ecosystem services . The world has warmed by about 0.8 degree Celcius from pre- industrial levels, as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Global warming is caused by two separate types of pollution. One is the long-term buildup of carbon dioxide, which can remain in the atmosphere for centuries. The carbon dioxide problem is hard to fix, because it comes mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, which is so essential to modern life and commerce. The other potent warming agents include three short-lived gases - methane, Black Carbon and lower tropospheric ozone will warm the atmosphere by altering the earth's energy budget . The warming effect of these pollutants, which stay in the atmosphere for several days to about a decade, is already about 80 percent of the amount that carbon dioxide causes. By reducing this Short Lived Climate Forcers (SLCF'S) may provide numerous benefits like avoiding rapid near term climate change that includes changes in temperature and precipitation pattern , and it help to maintain improved regional air quality and health co benefits by reducing Black carbon and ozone. By understanding the growing need this study is framed to Quantify Greenhouse gas emissions and their dispersion in Urban Chennai.
Climate is one of the most important determinants of vegetation patterns globally and has
significant influence on the distribution, structure and ecology of forest. India is one of the mega
biodiversity countries where forest account for about 20% of the geographical area. Tamil Nadu
contributes about 22643km2 of the forest area. Global assessment has shown that future climate
change is likely to significantly impact forest ecosystem. For instance increasing atmospheric
CO2 concentrations and global warming would directly result in a doubling of the net primary
productivity as per IPCC assessments. And an increase of 20C in the global temperature over
the next 100 years will cause migration of trees species about 1 to 3 miles every year. Indirectly
climate change will affect the functional role played by forests and carbon cycle. In India
carbon management studies need to be done in depth and immediate attention to be given for
enhancing carbon sequestration potential in forest in order to conserve the biodiversity in a
changed climatic condition. To assess and understand the impact of climate change on carbon
sequestration in forests, there is a need for modeling which helps in evolving future conservation
strategies with adaptive measures.
Major objectives of this Research will be,
1. Model based approach to study the specific impacts of climate change on Tamilnadu
2. Detailed analysis of the relation between climate variables and the mitigation potential
3. Assessing the vulnerability of climate change on forest ecosystem.
4. Suggesting suitable adaptation strategies for sustainable forest conservation.
Vulnerability Impact Assessment of Agriculture Productivity
Agriculture productivity is overwhelmingly dependent on the climate variables. The Study focuses on the assessment of the impacts of of climate change on the Agro- ecosystems of TamilNadu. IPCC predicts serious effects on the crop yield even with a temperature rise of 1-2.5 degree C. Forecasting the vulnerability of agricultural productivity to climate change through regional climate models(RCM) and crop impact assessment models will help in framing policies and adaptation strategies to make the agro ecosystems climate resilient. Modeling helps to evolve future adaptation strategies to save the livelihood and to ensure food security through sustainable agricultural practices.
Climate Change Impacts on River Basin in Tamil Nadu through Remote Sensing and GIS
Climate change poses uncertainties to supply and management of water resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.6 +/- 0.2 degree celsius since 1861, and predicts an increase of 2 to 4 degree celsius over the next 100 years. Temperature increases also affect the hydrologic cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently, these changes can influence precipitation amounts, timings and intensity rates, and indirectly impact storage of water in surface and Ground water.
The Research aims to project the future climate change scenarios and to study the predicted impact of climate change on the River basin in Tamil Nadu, and to develop suitable adaptation strategies.
Dry and Wet capture of carbon dioxide using industrial alkaline solid residues
CO2 whose atmospheric concentration has risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm to 380 ppm in 2005 is the most important greenhouse gas (GHG), being responsible for about two-thirds of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Increasing public concern has led to the development of a number of carbon sequestration processes for mitigating CO2. Mineral carbonation is an attractive method for the removal of CO2 as it results in permanent storage of CO2 as mineral carbonates that are environmentally benign. This technology could contribute significantly to CO2 sequestration in the proximity of the emission source, without the need of storing the gas into a geological reservoir. Usage of industrial solid alkaline waste materials as a raw material is a promising strategy in this technology.