the Environment Protection Act, 1986 a notification was issued in February, 1991,
for regulation of activities in the coastal area by the Ministry of Environment
and Forests (MoEF). As per the notification, the coastal land up to 500m from
the High Tide Line (HTL) and a stage of 100m along banks of creeks, estuaries,
backwater and rivers subject to tidal fluctuations, is called the Coastal Regulation
Zone(CRZ). CRZ along the country has been placed in four categories. The above
notification includes only the inter-tidal zone and land part of the coastal area
and does not include the ocean part. The notification imposed restriction on the
setting up and expansion of industries or processing plaits etc. in the said CRZ.
of Coastal Regulation Zone:
regulation of developmental activities, the coastal stretches within 500m of HTL
on the landward side are classified into four categories, viz..
Category I (CRZ -I):
Areas that are ecologically sensitive and important, such as national parks/marine
parks, sanctuaries, reserve forests, wild habitats, mangroves, corals/coral reefs,
area close to breeding and spawning grounds of fish and other marine life, areas
of outstanding natural beauty, historical and heritage areas, areas rich in genetic
biodiversity, areas likely to be inundated due to rise in sea level consequent
upon global warming and such areas as may be declared by the authorities.
Areas between the Low Tide Line and High Tide Line
No new constructions shall be permitted within 500m of the HTL.
II (CRZ -II):
area that have already been developed up to or the shoreline. For this purpose,
' Developed Area' is referred to as that area within the municipal limits
or in other legally designated urban areas which is already substantially built
up and which has been provided with drainage and approach roads and other infrastructural
facilities, such as water supply and sewerage mains.
a) Buildings shall be permitted neither
on the seaward side of the existing road(or roads proposed in the approved Coastal
Zone Plane of the area) nor on the seaward side of the existing and proposed road.
Existing authorized structures shall be subject to the existing local Town and
Country Planning regulations including the existing norms of FIS/FAR
Reconstruction of the authorized building to be permitted subject to the existing
FSI/FAR norms and without change in the existing use.
c) The design
and construction of buildings shall be consistent with the surrounding landscape
and architectural style
III (CRZ -III):
that are relatively undisturbed and those which do not belong to either Category
I or II. These will include coastal zone in the areas (developed and undeveloped)
and also areas within Municipal limits or in other legally designated urban areas
which are not substantially built up
a) The area up to 200m from the HTL
is be earmarked as 'No Development Zone'. No construction shall be permitted
in this zone except for repairs of existing authorized structures not exceeding
existing FSI, existing plinth area and existing density. However, the following
uses may be permissible in this zone-agriculture, horticulture, gardens, pastures,
parks, play fields, forestry and salt manufacture from sea water.
b) Development of vacant plots between
200 and 500m of High Tide Line in designated areas of CRZ-III with prior approval
of Ministry of Environment and forests permitted for construction of hotels/beach
resorts for temporary occupation of tourists / visitors.
Construction/ reconstruction of dwelling units between 200m and 500m of the High
Tidal Line permitted so long as it is within the ambit of traditional rights and
customary uses such as existing fishing villages and gothans. Building permission
for such Construction/reconstruction will be subject to the conditions that the
total member of dwelling unit shall not be more than twice the number of existing
units; total area covered on all floors shall not exceed 9 meters and construction
shall not be more than 2 floors (ground floor plus one floor).
Reconstruction/alteration of an existing authorized building permitted subject
to (1) to (3) above.
stretches in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakhadweep and small islands, except
those designated as CRZ I, CRZ II and CRZ III.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands:
No new construction of buildings shall be permitted within 200m of HTL.
The buildings between 200m and 500m from the HTL shall not more than 2 floors,
the total area covered on all floors shall not be more than 50% of the plot size
and total height of construction shall not exceed 9m.
3. The design and construction
of buildings shall be consistent with the surrounding landscape and local architectural
4. Corals and sand from the beaches and coastal waters shall not be
used for construction and purposes.
5. Dredging and underwater blasting in
and around coral formations shall not be permitted
6. However, in some of
the islands, coastal stretches may also be classified into categories of CRZ-I
or II or III with the prior approval of the MoEF and in such designated structures.
Activities prohibited within the CRZ
The following activities are declared as prohibited within the CRZ
Setting up of new industries and expansion of existing industries, except those
directly related to water front or directly needing foreshore facilities.
2. Manufacture or handling or disposal of hazardous substances.
up and expansion of fish processing units including warehousing ( excluding hatchery
and natural fish drying in permitted areas)
4. Setting up and expansion of
units/mechanism for disposal of waste and effluents into the water course.
5. Discharging of city untreated waters and effluents from industries, cities
or towns and other human settlements.
6. Dumping of city or town waste for
the purposes of land filling or otherwise; the existing practice, if any, shall
be phased out within a reasonable time not exceeding three years from the date
7. Dumping of ash or any wastes form the date of notification.
8. Land reclamation, building or disturbing the natural course of sea water with
similar observations, except those required for control of coastal erosion and
maintenance or sandbars except tidal regulators, storm water recharge.
Mining of sand, rocks and other substrata materials not available outside CRZ
10. Harvesting or drawl of groundwater and construction of transfer
within 200m of HTL; in the 200m to 500m zone it shall be permitted only when done
manually through ordinary wells for drinking, horticulture, agriculture and fisheries.
11. Construction activities in ecologically sensitive areas
12. Any construction
between LTL and HTL except facilities for carrying treated effluents and waste
discharges, oil, gas and similar pipelines and dressing or altering of sand dunes,
hills natural features including landscape changes for beautification, recreational
and other such purposes.